Ebola Virus Rages in Sierra Leone

Over the past few weeks the spread of the Ebola virus has stopped being front page news in US mainstream media. That doesn’t mean the threat is over. The following story indicates to control the disease, there is still much to be done in West Africa.

Ebola Rages in Sierra Leone as UN Misses Goals for Curbing Cases

By Simeon Bennett and Makiko Kitamura Nov 30, 2014

The United Nations has probably missed targets it set for curbing West Africa’s Ebola epidemic, as new infections surge in Sierra Leone.

Craig Spencer
Ebola Protective Gear

Only 23 percent of cases are being isolated in Liberia, and 40 percent in Sierra Leone, short of a goal set in October to isolate seven-in-ten cases by tomorrow. Neither country has enough burial teams to achieve a target of safely burying 70 percent of Ebola-related deaths, according to the World Health Organization. Still, unreliable data make it difficult to know conclusively whether the goals have been met, the Geneva-based WHO said.

While new infections are declining in Liberia and stable in Guinea, they’re rising in Sierra Leone, particularly in the country’s north and west, including the capital Freetown, according to the WHO. Burial rites in which mourners touch the corpse of a dead person are continuing to contribute to the spread of Ebola in Sierra Leone, Alpha Kanu, the nation’s information minister, said in a Nov. 27 briefing.

“Getting your people who for centuries have been steeped in those cultural practices to abandon those practices overnight is one of the challenges we have been facing,” Kanu said. “The culture of continuing with traditional practices is still very much a challenge. It’s a very touchy-feely African culture.”

Worst Outbreak

The outbreak began on Dec. 6 last year in the remote Guinean village of Meliandou, where a two-year-old boy, Emile Ouamouno died. It’s since raced through Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia, infecting 16,000 people and killing 5,689, making it the worst Ebola outbreak on record. Cases have also been reported in Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, the U.S. and Spain.

The epidemic may wipe as much as $33 billion from the region’s economy in a worst-case scenario, according to the World Bank, which is mobilizing $1 billion for the response.

More than 1,300 people have been infected in Sierra Leone in the past three weeks, and the country’s total number of infections will soon eclipse those in Liberia, the worst-affected country, according to the WHO.

Doctors Without Borders is building a new treatment center in Freetown that will open within the next 2 weeks, according to Francien Huizing, a spokeswoman for the medical charity in the Sierra Leonean capital.

In Liberia, only 67 cases were reported in the week to Nov. 23, and the northern district of Lofa has reported no cases for four weeks, the WHO said. Successful community outreach programs to educate people at risk and get them to adopt new burial practices have helped to curb infections in Liberia, said Dorian Job, deputy emergency program manager for Doctors Without Borders in Geneva.

The charity’s 240-bed ELWA3 treatment center in Monrovia only had 23 patients as of Nov. 17. Still, in some areas community outreach teams still lack fuel for their cars, preventing them from getting to remote communities, Job said.

“In general, Liberia is better supplied and has more resources than other countries,” he said. “What is important is that we don’t relax the effort. It’s not over.”

Read More Related News: Ebola Virus

Preliminary Studies Indicate Under Certain Conditions Ebola is Aerostable

Is the government telling us all it knows about the Ebola virus? Does it really understand the disease? A PDF published by the DEFENSE THREAT REDUCTION AGENCY indicates much remains to be known  about the current strain of Ebola. The information below comes from a.gov website. In public announcements it looks like information is being withheld from the public. The reasons are understandable. The government wants to avoid panic and wants to appear to have Ebola under control. This may have short term benefits but could have disastrous long term consequences. The more we understand about Ebola the better we can take steps to avoid infection.

DEFENSE THREAT REDUCTION AGENCY
BROAD AGENCY ANNOUNCEMENT
HDTRA1-15-EBOLA-BAA

Under item 2.2.4. “Ebola is aerostable in an enclosed controlled system in the dark and can
survive for long periods in different liquid media and can also be recovered from plastic and
glass surfaces at low temperatures for over 3 weeks.”

Source: Ebola Characterization  (Once on page download PDF file HDTRA1-15-Ebola-BAA at top right)

2.2.4. Ebola Characterization
The means by which Ebola virus is maintained in nature remains unclear. One reservoir of this zoonotic pathogen is believed to be in bats, but it is unknown what other natural reservoirs exist. Distinct Ebola viral sequences have been identified in infected but healthy mice and shrews. (Pourrut et al., 2005) indicating there may be other unknown reservoirs.

Ebola
Ebola Virus

A better understanding of Ebola persistence under a variety of environmental conditions may help us identify other possible reservoirs and hosts to research reservoirs and other modes of transmission.

While current science indicates the disease can only be transmitted by contact with contaminated body
fluids, it remains unclear if other transmission modes are feasible. Filoviruses are able to infect
via the respiratory route and are lethal at very low doses in experimental animal models, however
the infectious dose is unknown. There is minimal information on how well filoviruses survive
within aerosolized particles, and in certain media like the biofilm of sewage systems.

Preliminary studies indicate that Ebola is aerostable in an enclosed controlled system in the dark and can survive for long periods in different liquid media and can also be recovered from plastic and glass surfaces at low temperatures for over 3 weeks (Piercy, et al., 2010).

Troops Quarantined After Ebola Aid Trip

The Pentagon has decided, at least for now, to quarantine troops returning from West Africa. This goes against the wishes of many medical experts, but is in line with New York, New Jersey, and Illinois requiring quarantines for returning health workers, or for anyone having contact with Ebola victims in West Africa. What do you think? Should everyone be quarantined or allowed to return and self monitor?

One factor that may have aided the Pentagon’s decision. The first returning troops are returning to base in Italy. The host nation may have insisted on a quarantine.

Army major general, troops quarantined after Ebola aid trip

By Barbara Starr, CNN Pentagon Correspondent

Army Major General Darryl A. Williams, commander of U.S. Army Africa, and approximately 10 other personnel are now in “controlled monitoring” in Italy after returning there from West Africa over the weekend, according to multiple U.S. military officials.

The American personnel are effectively under quarantine, but Pentagon officials declined to use that terminology.

William’s plane was met on the ground by Italian authorities “in full CDC gear,” the official said referring to the type of protective equipment warn by U.S. health care workers.

There is no indication at this time any of the team have symptoms of Ebola.

They will be monitored for 21 days at a “separate location” at the U.S. military installation at Vicenza Italy, according to U.S. military officials. Senior Pentagon officials say it is not a “quarantine,” but rather “controlled monitoring.” However, the troops are being housed in an access controlled location on base, and are not allowed to go home for the 21 day period while they undergo twice daily temperature checks.

It is not clear yet if they will be allowed visits from family members.

Williams and his team have been in West Africa for 30 days, to set up the initial U.S. military assistance there and have traveled extensively around Liberia. The team was in treatment and testing areas during their travels.

Speaking to reporters two weeks ago while he was still overseas in Liberia, Williams spoke of the extensive monitoring that he was given.

“We measure, while we’re here — twice a day, are monitoring as required by the recent guidance that was put out while we’re here in Liberia. I — yesterday, I had my temperature taken, I think, eight times, before I got on and off aircraft, before I went in and out of the embassy, before I went out of my place where I’m staying,” William said during the October 16 press conference.

“As long as you exercise basic sanitation and cleanliness sort of protocols using the chlorine wash on your hands and your feet, get your temperature taken, limiting the exposure, the — no handshaking, those sorts of protocols, I think the risk is relatively low.”

Officials could not explain why the group was being put under into controlled monitoring, which is counter to the Pentagon policy. The current DOD policy on monitoring returning troops says “as long as individuals remain asymptomatic, they may return to work and routine daily activities with family members.”

White House Press Secretary Josh Earnest said Monday that the Defense Department “has not issued a policy related to their workers that have spent time in West Africa.”

“I know that there was this decision that was made by one commanding officer in the Department of Defense, but it does not reflect a department-wide policy that I understand is still under development,” Earnest said.

The Pentagon has, though, published plans that detail how it will handle troops who are deployed to the region — including potential quarantines.

Jessica L. Wright, the undersecretary of Defense for personnel and readiness, issued an Oct. 10 memo that said troops who have faced an elevated risk of exposure to Ebola will be quarantined for 21 days — and that those who haven’t faced any known exposure will be monitored for three weeks.

Wright’s memo also lays out the Pentagon’s plans to train troops before they’re sent to West Africa and to monitor them during their deployment to the epicenter of the Ebola outbreak.

Read More: Ebola Quarantine

Ebola Virus Reaches New York City

Ebola Virus is brought to New York City by a Doctor returning from West Africa. We still have a lot to learn about Ebola. Perhaps everyone returning from West Africa needs to be quarantined, especially health workers.  Then there are the thousands of US military  personnel being sent  to Africa, Have we really thought this through? How would their return be handled?

Source: Doctors Without Borders physician in NYC tests positive for Ebola

By Ray Sanchez and Shimon Prokupecz, CNN

A Doctors Without Borders physician who recently returned to New York from West Africa has tested positive for the Ebola virus, a law enforcement official briefed on the matter told CNN.

The doctor, identified as Craig Spencer, 33, came back from West Africa about 10 days ago, and developed a fever, nausea, pain and fatigue Wednesday night.

The 33-year-old physician, employed at New York’s Columbia Presbyterian Hospital, has been in isolation at Bellevue Hospital in Manhattan since Thursday morning, the official said.

At a news conference Thursday, New York Mayor Bill de Blasio sought to allay public concerns about the spread of the deadly virus, saying that “careful protocols were followed every step of the way” in the city’s handling of the case. The hospitalized doctor has “worked closely” with health officials, the mayor said.

Craig Spencer
Craig Spencer, Ebola Infected Doctor
Spencer posted this image to Facebook on September 18 from Brussells, saying “Off to Guinea with Doctors Without Borders (MSF). Please support organizations that are sending support or personnel to West Africa, and help combat one of the worst public health and humanitarian disasters in recent history.

The doctor exhibited symptoms of the Ebola virus for “a very brief period of time” and had direct contact with “very few people” in New York, de Blasio told reporters.

On his Facebook page, Spencer posted a photo of himself in protective gear. The page indicates he went to Guinea around September 18 and later to Brussels in mid October.

“Off to Guinea with Doctors Without Borders (MSF)” he wrote. “Please support organizations that are sending support or personnel to West Africa, and help combat one of the worst public health and humanitarian disasters in recent history.”

In a statement, Columbia Presbyterian Hospital said the doctor was “a dedicated humanitarian” who went to “an area of medical crisis to help a desperately underserved population.”

Dr. Craig Spencer
photo of Dr. Craig Spencer, being treated in NY for Ebola

“He is a committed and responsible physician who always puts his patients first,” the hospital statement said. “He has not been to work at our hospital and has not seen any patients at our hospital since his return from overseas.”

The CDC had people packing up to go to New York on Thursday, and a specimen from the physician was to be sent to Atlanta for testing, an official familiar with the situation told CNN’s Elizabeth Cohen.

Investigators took the case seriously from the outset because it appeared the doctor didn’t quarantine himself following his return, the law enforcement official said. The doctor traveled to Brooklyn and then back to Manhattan on Wednesday night, the official said.

In a statement Thursday, Doctors Without Borders confirmed that the physician recently returned from West Africa and was “engaged in regular health monitoring.” The doctor contacted Doctors Without Borders Thursday to report a fever, the statement said.

The law enforcement official said the doctor was out in public. Authorities also quarantined his girlfriend, with whom he was spending time since his return from Africa.

The doctor began feeling sluggish a couple of days ago, but it wasn’t until Thursday, when he developed 103-degree fever, that he contacted Doctors Without Borders, authorities said.

The case came to light after the New York Fire Department received a call shortly before noon Thursday about a sick person in Manhattan. The patient was taken to Bellevue.

Read More: Dr. Craig Spencer

Ebola virus is a favorite search over most search engines today. At our website, we tried to gather the best pieces of information for you. In case you liked the article above, we would recommend you to browse through our article gallery for more valuable take-away on the subject matter. Please remember the articles we present are collated from mainstream websites. Hopefully MSM is reporting accurate information as known today.

Ebola : 2014 Outbreak Explained by Video

This video on the 2014 Ebola outbreak is a bit outdated as the disease continues to rapidly spread in West Africa.

Scientists working in a laboratory
Scientists working in a laboratory

Ebola experts all agree on one thing. The Ebola virus outbreak must be fought and contained in West Africa. The disease spreading to heavily populated cities around the world, largely through air travel, would be a nightmare.

Ebola virus is a favorite search over most search engines today. At our website, we tried to gather the best pieces of information for you. In case you liked the article above, we would recommend you to browse through our article gallery for more valuable take-away on the subject matter. Please remember the articles we present are collated from mainstream websites. Hopefully MSM is reporting accurate information as known today.

Dr. Michael Osterholm On Ebola Virus. “There’s a Lot We Don’t Know”

Dr. Osterholm is the head of the Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy at the University of Minnesota. He is a prominent public health scientist and a nationally recognized Biosecurity expert. In his talk on CSPAN he cautions officials about making misleading statements about the Ebola virus. According  to Dr. Osterholm there is a lot about this strain of Ebola that researchers don’t understand.

This outbreak is different. The Doctor encourages officials to tell the public the truth.

Starting about 19 minutes in Dr. Osterholm makes some statements  about the airborne issue.

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Ebola Disease Units Top Notch, But Short on Beds

The US has four top notch infectious disease units that are well suited for safely treating Ebola patients. The problem is each facility can only treat a few patients at one time.

The CDC has stepped up its protocol guidelines. Hospitals across the nation are scrambling to upgrade procedures for treating Ebola patients. Hopefully, with lessons learned, the Ebola disease will be contained. After the mishaps in Dallas everyone realizes the seriousness of treating Ebola. In treating the Ebola disease, there is no room for mistakes.

Ebola Disease Units Boast High-Level Tools, Few Rooms.

By Robert Langreth and Cynthia Koons Oct 17, 2014

The state-of-the-art infectious disease centers now treating Ebola patients in the U.S. have world-class doctors and nurses with years of training, hot pressure chambers that can sterilize more than a ton of contaminated waste, and a record of success handling some of the world’s most demonic pestilence.

Ebola disease
Ebola Lab Worker

What they don’t have is a lot of room for patients.

Only four hospitals in the country have high-level containment units specially designed for treating exotic infectious diseases such as Ebola, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Each has the capacity to treat only a handful of Ebola patients at once.

“If there are any more mishaps we’re going to need more beds,” said Robert Glatter, an emergency room doctor at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York. “We need to significantly increase” the number of sophisticated containment units.

The debacle at Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital Dallas, where two health workers were infected with Ebola while treating Thomas Eric Duncan before he died, exposed the lack of preparedness for treating Ebola at many hospitals. While various major hospitals are now gearing up to treat Ebola, for now patients are being treated at just these handful of centers.

Emory University Hospital in Atlanta, which is treating Amber Vinson, the second Dallas health-care worker to be infected by Ebola, has capacity for three patients in its biocontainment unit, which was created in 2002, said Holly Korschun, an Emory spokeswoman, in an e-mail.

Over the years, its workers “were trained in the use of personal protective equipment like full-body suits, and they ran drills for a dozen different scenarios,” she said.

The National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, which is treating Nina Pham, the first Dallas health-care worker to be infected with Ebola, has capacity to take two patients, an NIH official told Congress on Thursday. The unit, in Bethesda, Maryland, is designed to provide high-level isolation capabilities, the NIH said in a statement.

The biocontainment facility at the Nebraska Medical Center, which is treating NBC cameraman Ashoka Mukpo, would most likely be able to handle two to three patients at a time, depending on the severity of the cases, said Christopher Kratochvil, associate vice-chancellor for clinical research at the University of Nebraska Medical Center, in a telephone interview.

Montana Facility

A fourth biocontainment facility in Montana, designed to treat workers from the NIH’s Rocky Mountain Laboratories in cases of accidental infection, has three patient rooms, according to a 2010 article in Emerging Infectious Diseases.

The high-level containment units weren’t necessarily designed with Ebola in mind, said Rick Davey, deputy clinical director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases division of clinical research, on a conference call with reporters. Instead, they were developed to safely treat workers from various national facilities who became infected with pathogens in accidents, he said. Among other features, the units have state-of-the-art air handling capabilities so microbes can’t get out.

“The staff training and drilling and re-training and re-drilling that all of these units have undertaken over a process of years has prepared them thoroughly for this current outbreak,” Davey said.

Ebola is challenging to treat safely because patients release large amounts of vomit, diarrhea or blood as the disease becomes more advanced, and the fluids can contain large amounts of infectious virus. Patients can lose as much as 5 to 10 liters of bodily fluids a day, according to a presentation by an Emory University infectious disease specialist, Bruce Ribner, at a medical conference in early October.

350 Boxes

At Emory, in just a three-week period after its first Ebola patient arrived, the hospital had to sterilize 350 boxes of medical waste weighing more than 3,000 pounds using a device called an autoclave, according to a webcast of Ribner’s presentation at idweek.org.

They filled several trailers sent off for incineration, according to the presentation.

Dealing with fluids “is a huge problem,” in treating Ebola patients, according to Sean Kaufman, a biosafety expert who was involved in infection control when the first two Ebola patients were treated at Emory in August. “The challenge of cleaning up large spills is substantial,” he said.

Kaufman has since left Emory and is now training doctors in Liberia.

‘Engineered Properly’

Emory “did a lot of things right,” Kaufman said. “They had a beautiful facility that was engineered properly. They had the best personal protective equipment. They had outstanding standard operating procedures. And they had great administrative control.”

For example, Emory used full-body suits and head gear, going beyond the minimum recommendations of the Atlanta-based CDC at the time, because nurses were more comfortable in them, according to Kaufman.

It also was important to have someone not involved in care watching over the caregivers to make sure they don’t inadvertently slip up and infect themselves, Kaufman said. At Emory, he said, “I sat in there with them for 15 hours a day for close to two weeks to make sure they did what they were supposed to do.”

The first two Ebola patients Emory treated — aid worker Nancy Writebol and doctor Kent Brantly — recovered and were released. A third patient who arrived at Emory on September 9 is recovering and expects to be released soon, according to a statement from the patient released by Emory on October 15.

Prior Training

The biocontainment facility at the Nebraska Medical Center, which successfully treated doctor Rick Sacra, has 40 employees from a variety of backgrounds. They include surgical nurses, respiratory therapists, nursing assistants and infectious disease doctors.

Five to seven staff members work on the unit at any one time treating a given Ebola patient, said Kratochvil, associate vice-chancellor for clinical research at the University of Nebraska Medical Center.

“To be able to perform at this level will really be based on the prior training of the hospital,” Kratochvil said by telephone. “The level of care required for the personal protective equipment with Ebola is higher than what most hospitals are used to.”

Nebraska’s unit has a dedicated individual who monitors the application and removal of protective equipment.

Less Time

Since receiving a second Ebola patient, the hospital has established a lab within the biocontainment unit to test blood and biological samples on site. That cuts down on the time it would take to sterilize the outside of a sample package before shipping it out for testing.

While the Nebraska facility has 10 beds distributed in five double rooms, Kratochvil said it would be difficult to put two Ebola patients in any one room given the equipment needed to treat them, and that the facility would most likely be able to handle two to three Ebola patients at a time, he said.

At the NIH Clinical Center in Maryland, Nina Pham is overseen by two nurses in her room at any one time, with other nurses outside watching to make sure procedures are followed.

Both Emory University and Nebraska had the advantage of knowing in advance that Ebola patients were coming, giving them time to prepare.

‘Advance Notification’

“They were fortunate that they had advance notification of that these patients were coming, versus the hospital in Texas where the patient just showed up,” said Mark Jarrett, chief quality officer at the North Shore-LIJ Health System, which has 17 hospitals in Long Island and New York. “It gave them a chance to make sure everything was put into place.”

Nurses and doctors need “ample training” in how to isolate and treat Ebola patients safely, including detailed training on how to take protective equipment off and observers who can help nurses and doctors do this, said Glatter, the emergency physician at Lenox Hill Hospital. Holding frequent drills or simulations is crucial for hospitals to be prepared for treating an Ebola patient in case one walks in the door.

Being able to treat an Ebola patient without spreading the disease “is direct proof of how well you are doing” in infection control, said Glatter.

See Emory Ebola Treatment Room Diagram: Ebola Treatment Room

Ebola virus is a favorite search over most search engines today. At our website, we tried to gather the best pieces of information for you. In case you liked the article above, we would recommend you to browse through our article gallery for more valuable take-away on the subject matter. Please remember the articles we present are collated from mainstream websites. Hopefully MSM is reporting accurate information as known today.

Ebola Virus: 5 CDC Mistakes

The CDC has come under attack for the way they have handled the Ebola crisis. The CDC is staffed by smart people, many brilliant, and overall serve the nation well. Their Ebola problem is one of inexperience. I’m sure the CDC underestimated the current strain of Ebola. Studying in a laboratory is far different from having field experience.

Ebola Protection
Ebola Protective Gear

Consulting with Doctors Without Borders before Ebola arrived in the US would have prevented a lot of grief. Perhaps a bit of hubris was involved. After all, DWB is a French organization. What could they possibly know? They’ve only fought Ebola in Africa since it was first discovered.

Ebola:Five ways the CDC got it wrong

By Elizabeth Cohen, Senior Medical Correspondent CNN

A nurse contracts Ebola. An urgent care center in Boston shuts down when a sick man recently returned from Liberia walks in. Health care workers complain they haven’t been properly trained to protect themselves against the deadly virus.

Public health experts are asking whether the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is partly to blame.

Here are five things they say the CDC is getting wrong.

1. The CDC is telling possible Ebola patients to “call a doctor.”

When passengers arrive in the United States from Liberia, Sierra Leone or Guinea, they’re handed a flier instructing them to “call a doctor” if they feel ill.

Never mind how hard it is to get your doctor on the phone, but even if you could, it’s quite possible she’d tell you to go to the nearest emergency room or urgent care center.

We saw how well that worked at Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital in Dallas. On September 25, the hospital sent a feverish Thomas Eric Duncan home even though he had told them he’d recently been to Liberia.

And we’ve seen how well that worked in Massachusetts, where an ill man recently returned from Liberia walked into an urgent care center, which then evacuated its other patients and closed for several hours.

One way to do it differently: Set up a toll free number for returning passengers that would reach a centralized office, which would then dispatch a local ambulance to get the patient to a hospital.

The hospital would be warned that a possible Ebola patient is on the way, and the patient would not be brought through the main emergency room.

That’s the idea of Gavin Macgregor-Skinner, an assistant professor at Penn State’s Department of Public Health Sciences.

“Do you really want someone with Ebola hopping on a bus to get to the hospital? No,” he said. “And once they get there, do you want them sitting in the waiting room next to the kid with the broken arm? Again, no.”

CDC Director Tom Frieden faces rising tide of criticism

2. The CDC director says any hospital can care for Ebola patients.

Essentially any hospital in the country can safely take care of Ebola. You don’t need a special hospital to do it,” Dr. Thomas Frieden said Sunday at a press conference.

“I think it’s very unfortunate that he keeps re-stating that,” said Macgregor-Skinner, the global projects manager for the Elizabeth R. Griffin Foundation.

He said when it comes to handling Ebola, not all hospitals are created equally. As seen at Presbyterian, using protective gear can be tricky. Plus, it’s a challenge to handle infectious waste from Ebola patients, such as hospital gowns contaminated with blood or vomit.

Dr. Michael Osterholm, an infectious disease epidemiologist at the University of Minnesota, said some hospitals have more experience with infectious diseases and consistently do drills in how to deal with biohazards.

“If you were a burn unit patient, wouldn’t you want to go to a burn unit?” he said.

The CDC may already be moving in that direction.

Designating certain hospitals as Ebola treatment units “is something we’re exploring further,” said Tom Skinner, a spokesman for the agency.

CDC ‘doubling down’ on Ebola training efforts

3. The CDC didn’t encourage the “buddy system” for doctors and nurses.

Under this system, a doctor or nurse who is about to do a procedure on an Ebola patient has a “buddy,” another health care worker, who acts as a safety supervisor, monitoring the worker from the time he puts on the gear until the time he takes it off.

The “buddy system” has been effective in stopping other kinds of infections in hospitals.

Skinner said the CDC is considering recommending such a system to hospitals.

4. CDC didn’t encourage doctors to develop Ebola treatment guidelines.

Taking care of Ebola patients is tricky, because certain procedures might put doctors and nurses in contact with the patient’s infectious bodily fluids.

At Sunday’s press conference, Frieden hinted that Presbyterian might have performed two measures — inserting a breathing tube and giving kidney dialysis — that were unlikely to help Duncan. He described them as a “desperate measure” to save his life.

“Both of those procedures may spread contaminated materials and are considered high-risk procedures,” he said. “I’m not familiar with any prior patient with Ebola who has undergone either intubation or dialysis.”

Osterholm said CDC should coordinate with medical groups to come up with treatment guidelines.

“We could have and should have done it a few months ago,” he said.

5. The CDC put too much trust in protective gear.

Once Duncan was diagnosed, health authorities started making daily visits to 48 of his contacts.

But that didn’t include several dozen workers at Presbyterian who took care of Duncan after he was diagnosed. They weren’t followed because they were wearing protective gear when they had contact with Duncan. Instead, they monitored themselves.

Public health experts said that was a misstep, as the CDC should have realized that putting on and taking off protective gear is often done imperfectly and one of the workers might get an infection.

How did Dallas nurse contract Ebola?

“We have to recognize that our safety work tells us that breaches of protocol are the norm, not the exception in health care,” said Dr. Peter Pronovost, senior vice president for patient safety and quality at Johns Hopkins Medicine. “We routinely break precautions.”

Skinner said that in this case, self-monitoring worked, but that monitoring from health officials can be beneficial, too, and so health care workers who were involved in Duncan’s care will now get daily visits from health authorities.

More Ebola Articles: Ebola Articles

Did you like reading our collection on Ebola virus? We update new information on Ebola virus weekly. We would like to see you back on our website to enjoy more valuable reading. There is a lot we still have to cover in this fast moving story.